Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells derived from non marrow tissues, such as umbilical cord blood, adipose tissue, adult muscle or dental pulp of deciduous baby teeth. The isolated MSCs are also injected on the same day, along with natural growth factors obtained from the blood platelets of the patient. The main objective is to deliver a much greater number of stem cells to the injured area to restore its function.
Some risks factors are associated with stem cell therapy and include immune reactions from injected stem cells and also cells may become contaminated with bacteria, viruses or other pathogens that may cause disease. The procedure to either remove or inject the cells also has the risk of introducing an infection to the damaged tissue into which they are injected.